The Price of Eggs:
Deflating the Hype of Theraputic Cloning

In January 2006, I provided testimony before the Human Services Committee of the Illinois General Assembly on the on public funding of research involving embryo-destructive research and “therapeutic” cloning. I want to quote a length from what I said to that skeptical group of Democrats to show how fast the hype over politicized science can change in the span of a year:

We believe that human cloning poses a grave danger not only to the dignity of the human embryo but to the women who provide the eggs needed for such research. Although it is often overlooked or ignored, women are exploited in the process of human cloning research.

For years the hype over therapeutic cloning has concealed what the scientific community has known for several years: cloning will never lead to a broad range of cures or treatments. The clinical benefits of cloning are years or decades away, and genetically specific treatments will be available to only a select few wealthy patients. Even if it can be perfected, therapeutic cloning will be medicine for millionaires.

As Australia’s Alan Trounson, a world expert on embryonic stem cells, told the science journal Nature Medicine, “so-called therapeutic cloning to my mind is a non-event”. As a way of creating cures, he observed, “it’s just not realistic.” In the same article an American expert, José Cibelli of Michigan State University predicted that “therapeutic cloning is going to be obsolete.”

Lost in the hype over “miracle cures” is the indisputable fact that the human cloning is simply an untenable method for treating diseases. The number of eggs needed for such purposes exceeds the supply by several orders of magnitude.

Creating the embryos needed for individualized treatments requires obtaining a sufficient number of human eggs. Normally women only release one egg per cycle but with the use of ovarian hyperstimulating drugs, the average number created per cycle can be increased to ten.

Although the cloning process currently requires over 200 eggs to create one embryo, scientists estimate that the process could eventually become more efficient, requiring only fifty eggs to create one viable cloned embryo. Based on this increased efficiency five women would need to undergo one cycle of fertility treatment and egg harvesting for each cloned embryo produced.

To understand the clinical implications, let’s limit our focus to a disease like diabetes, which affects approximately 16 million Americans. At the rate of 50 eggs per viable clone, we would need 800 million human eggs – 80 million donations — just to treat this one disease throughout the population. Because there are only 60 million women of reproductive age in America, we would need to harvest eggs from every woman of reproductive age in the country and ask 20 million of them to donate a second time just to get the eggs needed for treating diabetes. What this means is that every single woman who can produce healthy eggs would need to undergo an uncomfortable, painful, and potentially dangerous procedure in order to provide cures for this one disease.

While this is not within the realm of possibility, let’s assume for the sake of argument that every woman of reproductive age in the country was willing to risk ovarian cysts and cancers, severe pelvic pain, rupture of the ovaries, and possible negative effects on future fertility and other conditions that are associated with egg harvesting. Because the process requires the use of ovarian hyperstimulating drugs, approximately 1 in 100 women develop a condition known as Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. Based on this ratio we can calculate that 800,000 will suffer from this syndrome, a condition that causes rapid accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, chest cavity, and heart and produces symptoms and outcomes such as severe pelvic pain, nausea, vomiting, ovarian enlargement, respiratory problems, blocking of blood vessels by blood clots, and liver dysfunction. A generous estimate is that one thousand of these women who donate their eggs will die.

This type of risk will naturally keep the cost of donor eggs relatively high. If we use the going rate of $5,000-15,000 per donation, we can estimate that the cost will be between $400 billion to 1.2 trillion dollars just to buy the eggs needed to provide treatment for those who suffer from diabetes. Add to this the cost of hospitalization, physician care, creating the clone, and other medical expenses and it becomes apparent that therapeutic cloning would be the most expensive medical treatment in the history of the world.

These facts are readily acknowledged within the scientific community and in the scientific journals. State governments, though, are reluctant to fund expensive research that has no large-scale public benefit, so researchers and biotech companies are forced to overhype the potential in order to obtain the money they need to carry out their research. But in making false promises about the cures, they are not only exploiting the emotions of patients and their families, they are exploiting women by asking them to risk their own health for speculative research.

Last year in the American Journal of Bioethics, Stanford professors David Magnus and Mildred Cho argued that referring to the process of deriving stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer as “therapeutic cloning” reinforces the mistaken impression that experiments are therapeutic in nature. In fact, there is no therapy currently associated with [the cloning process]. They add, “allowing research donation to take place under these circumstances is an invitation for a new kind of therapeutic misconception, and should avoided at this early stage of scientific development.”

Because we do not have the information about health risks necessary for women to make a truly informed choice about her reproductive health, responsible research plans must postpone embryo cloning research with human eggs until better data make true informed consent possible for any woman considering the donation of eggs for research. The women of Illinois must not be allowed to be treated as lab animals for speculative research purposes.


Because I didn’t have the letters PhD after my name, my testimony was discounted by the committee chairman; a state representative who believed that the “stem-cell cures” consisted of “injecting embryos into a patient’s spinal cord.” (The committee was so scientifically illiterate that many did not understand the distinction between eggs (human ova) and embryos.)
Now that the ethical means of obtaining such stem cells is becoming a reality, the management of expectataion has begun. In the latest edition of Newsweek Sharon Begley writes:

To a public for whom stem cells equal cure, the real blow will be the realization that the simplistic picture—take a patient’s genes, slip them into an egg, let the egg grow and divide into stem cells that are perfect genetic matches for the patient and transplant those cells to treat diabetes, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s—is more fiction than fact. “Creating cell lines for transplant is unlikely to come down the pike any time soon,” Paul Nurse, president of Rockefeller University and a Nobelist in medicine, told the New York Stem Cell Foundation conference last month. “Opponents [of embryonic stem-cell research] recognized that this was an overselling of the technology.” Instead of yielding cures directly, stem cells— reprogrammed and embryonic alike—will take their place alongside other lab systems for studying disease. They will reveal hitherto-unknown causes and pathways of illness, even pointing the way to new drugs. The typical time between such a discovery and a new drug is at least 15 years.

If this sounds familiar it may be because only last week I predicted, “[T]hose who believed the hype about ESCR leading to cures. They will initially be elated — and then dejected when they find that the real potential for ESCR is basic research and that any therapeutic uses are likely to come decades from now.”
Predicting this outcome didn’t require the gift of prophecy. Anyone who was paying attention could have recognized that this science was being overhyped. All it took was knowing the real price of eggs.

Published by

Joe Carter

Joe Carter founded Evangelical Outpost in 2005. He is the web editor for First Things and an adjunct professor of journalism at Patrick Henry College. A fifteen-year Marine Corps veteran, he previously served as the managing editor for the online magazine Culture11 and The East Texas Tribune. Joe has also served as the Director of Research and Rapid Response for the Mike Huckabee for President campaign and as a director of communications for both the Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity and Family Research Council. He is the co-author of How to Argue like Jesus: Learning Persuasion from History's Greatest Communicaton.

  • Mumon

    In January 2006, I provided testimony before the Human Services Committee of the Illinois General Assembly on the on public funding of research involving embryo-destructive research and “therapeutic” cloning.

    Like, could anyone have done that? Like Snoop Doggy Dogg? I mean, it’s not like you have any expertise in the ethics therein.
    And people wonder why government is often ineffective.

    …For years the hype over therapeutic cloning has concealed what the scientific community has known for several years: cloning will never lead to a broad range of cures or treatments….

    Ah, that’s the ticket! That’s what I’ve been missing! I was listening to Rudolf Jaenisch of MIT when I should have been listening to you…
    Seriously, you haven’t a freakin’ clue what you’re talking about.

  • Boonton

    Problem here is putting the cart before the hoarse. Joe tries to imagine what a therapy derived from clones would look like but he doesn’t know because no one can really know.
    The charge of ‘exploitation of women’ is pretty weak IMO. Assume that the only useful therapy derived from clones would require massive amounts of women donating eggs. How does that compare with organ donation?
    Since organ donation was discovered there’s only two ways to do it:
    1. Someone has to die leaving organs to be donated.
    2. Someone has to give up an organ. While this is possible for kidneys and some other types of organs it doesn’t change the fact that the donator must risk serious surgery and facing the possibility of someday being ‘short’ on organs themselves!
    As much as Joe plays up the risks of egg donating it’s a walk in the park compared to organ donation. Is that therapy ‘exploiting’ the organ donators? The answer comes to how its done. If its like China where political dissidents are killed and their organs taken against their will then yea that’s exploitation. If its like the US where people volunteer I’d say its not. Even if the US allowed people to be paid for donating organs I’d still say its not exploitation.
    But imagine organ donation hasn’t been invented yet. Anyone who tried to estimate how many organs would be ‘needed’ by such a therapy would quickly see that it would be very hard to see how such a demand could be satisfied without serious ‘exploitation’. Would it therefore make sense to kill funding for organ donation research?

  • RAging Bee

    For years the hype over therapeutic cloning has concealed what the scientific community has known for several years: cloning will never lead to a broad range of cures or treatments. The clinical benefits of cloning are years or decades away, and genetically specific treatments will be available to only a select few wealthy patients. Even if it can be perfected, therapeutic cloning will be medicine for millionaires.
    There are valid arguments against theraputic cloning, but none of these sentences qualify. First, you say “never,” then you change it to “years or decades away;” well, of course things take time — it took a bit of time to invent penicillin too. Second, every new technology starts out expensive, then gets cheaper over the years as it’s improved on.
    Because we do not have the information about health risks necessary for women to make a truly informed choice about her reproductive health, responsible research plans must postpone embryo cloning research with human eggs until better data make true informed consent possible for any woman considering the donation of eggs for research. The women of Illinois must not be allowed to be treated as lab animals for speculative research purposes.
    I’m sorry, but I sense a bit of double-talk here. First you rattle off a paragraph full of information about health risks to women; then you say “we do not have the information about health risks,” and imply that women are being “exploited,” when in fact the donation of eggs is volunraty on their part — no one, to my knowledge, is forcing any woman to lie down and undergo an invasive operation against her will.
    Because I didn’t have the letters PhD after my name, my testimony was discounted by the committee chairman…
    Okay, you’ve admitted what qualifications you don’t have; but you haven’t told us what qualifications you DO have.

  • Scuba Steve

    A note to those of you who like to pick on Joe because he doesn’t have a Ph.D…
    As a Ph.D. in microbiology, I can tell you that a Ph.D. is a specialized degree (which says you are the world’s expert in a very specific subject area — let’s say, one gene in one bacterium, for example) and are able to create new knowledge in that field. It doesn’t say that you are qualified to speak on science (or even biology) in general. Am I qualified to comment on stem cells because I have a Ph.D. in playing with bacteria? Not necessarily.
    Anyone who knows how to read scientific literature and evaluate it can become knowledgeable on the topic of ESCR, if they so choose. Quibble with the arguments he makes if you will, but the “he’s not qualified to talk on this subject” argument is elitist and greatly ignorant of how science Ph.D.s are trained and their actual capabilites.

  • oclarki

    No kidding Mumon is some electronics engineer from Vancouver, Washington. What does he know?

  • Sarah Flashing

    “The committee was so scientifically illiterate that many did not understand the distinction between eggs (human ova) and embryos.”
    You forgot to mention who also spoke that day :)
    It was amazing how the “clergy” who testified for the other side also confused eggs and embryos.

  • Mumon

    As it happens, I had the great fortune of hearing Dr. Rudolf Jaenisch of MIT’s Whitehead Institute talk about his research recently.
    And based on Jaenisch’s talk, which had results pre-dating the recent hoopla (check my diary on Kos for details), it was manifestly self evident, to even this humble Ph.D. Electrical Engineer that the “zygotes = people” crowd had no moral standing whatsoever, or rather were in moral quicksand. At this stage anyone who makes that equals sign is on about the same moral footing as those who would leave infants in dumpsters, or say that brain dead people are equal to living people. They devalue human life; they do not uphold it.
    OK, yeah, many people with my training do collaborate with medical professionals in their research, and I’m not one of them, but it wouldn’t be a stretch for me (that’s what’s so nice about systems engineering, my more specific field of study).

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