Markets and Miracles:
What the Market Economy Needs to be Moral

Economics & Law — By on February 26, 2008 at 2:16 am

Almost everyone has heard economics referred to as “the dismal science.” And if you took a course in macroeconomics you probably recognize that the appellation was given by the Scottish historian Thomas Carlyle. But what few people realize is that Carlyle coined the term in an 1849 magazine article titled Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question in which he denounced the two groups within the UK who championed the cause of antislavery: market economists and evangelicals.
Today we have become so accustomed to hearing criticisms of free market economics from socialists, Marxists, and other extremes of the political left that we find it difficult to imagine that it being opposed by conservatives. Attitudes toward the market economy, however, have less to do with the political spectrum than they do with the conception of who should retain control over economic life. Progressives, fearing that no one is in control and that powerful will take advantage of the weak, believe the state must step in to prevent inequitable and unjust outcomes. Conservatives (as we would define them today), by contrast, put their faith in the system itself and believe that left unhindered by the state, is sufficient to lead to the best possible end result. Libertarians, who view markets as morally neutral, contend that the individual, when allowed total liberty, will usher in the ideal end state. While all of these positions have some merit, they all ultimately fail when they leave out the most significant reason for putting our trust in the markets: because all control ultimately belongs to God.
Recognizing this fact, however, does not release homo economicus from all responsibility. A market is, after all, merely a mechanism for buying and selling goods and services. And while it is often viewed as highly individualistic and selfish, the fact remains that markets cannot exist without a network of humans in relationship with one another. As with all human interactions, though, our natural proclivity to sin can have a detrimental effect. Market forces and outcomes are prone to injustice and inequitable distribution precisely because man is by nature a sinful creature.
As Christians, we can never embrace any system or institution without being wary of how we are likely to abuse it for our own depraved purposes and rationalize our reasons for doing so. This is the primary reason we cannot fully embrace either a conservative or libertarian view of market economics.


But we should also be leery of falling for the progressive tendency to believe that government is the proper defender against economic injustice. While we might agree that protections are often necessary, we should reject the notion that the state has the moral authority to carry out that task. As William McGurn writes in Is the Market Moral?, it is naive to expect government to properly counter powerful market forces when the state has a monopoly on power. Indeed, there are few examples in history where government has circumvented the natural inclinations of its citizens in order to make a market more moral.
If governmental intervention is not the answer, how then should we show concern for the poor? By providing them the opportunities, the resources, and the freedom to more fully enter the market economy. As McGurn points out, “For the poor the real danger is almost never markets and almost always the absence of them.”
“It strikes me as not a coincidence,” adds McGurn, “that the God who made thinking beings in his own image appears to have put us in a world in which our wealth and well-being depend not only on our own freedom but that of our neighbors.”
How odd it is that we believe that free markets are beneficial for our own lives yet reject it as a solution for our neighbors. We wouldn’t accept having our own economic freedom and access to markets stifled by an intrusive government yet we often believe this is the best option for “the poor”, whether in our own inner cities or on the continent of Africa. Why is there two sets of standards for how to increase freedom and prosperity?
In a post on ethics and markets, Andy Morriss recounts an anecdote he heard on the radio:

One minister recounted how another minister had told him how God had answered his prayers and healed a headache the second minister had before a major sermon. The first minister commented on how arrogant the second minister was, to demand a miracle to cure his headache when God had already provided aspirin. Surely it is arrogant for us to pray for miracles to relieve drought and poverty when God has already handed us the means to do so – markets. Again, however, we rarely hear moral criticism of those who refuse the miracle of the market and insist that God (or someone) perform the far greater miracle of making economic planning work.

This raises an interesting question for Christians: Does God’s sovereignty not extend to markets? If so, then why do we expect, as Morris says, for God to circumvent the institution he has created and provided for our well-being by providing a “miracle?” The primary reason, in my opinion, is that we no longer think theologically about economics. While we evangelicals often form our views on such institutions as marriage and the family from our theology, we acquire our understanding of markets from our politics. If we subscribe to a progressive politics, then we adopt the Left’s criticism of markets. If we subscribe to conservative politics, then we embrace the Right’s unquestioning allegiance to unfettered markets.
What we need is a third way. We need a clear Christian vision that understands that markets are a moral sphere (contra the libertarians). We need to promote the idea that free individuals rather than government force is necessary to carry out this task (as the left often contends). We need to realize that the “market” is not a mystical system that will miraculously provide for our neighbor (as many conservatives seem to think). What we need is develop a coherent Biblically-based conception of how the market as a human institution can be used for the redemptive purposes of our Creator. As with every institution, what the markets need is for Christians to act more like Christ.



  • http://dontdrinkthekingswine.blogspot.com Daniel

    “What we need is develop a coherent Biblically-based conception of how the market as a human institution can be used for the redemptive purposes of our Creator. As with every institution, what the markets need is for Christians to act more like Christ.”
    I couldn’t agree more. But what, exactly, would Christian economics look like? How would we act more like Christ in the marketplace? Would some kinds of marketplace activities become unChristian by definition? In an earlier post, you addressed Romney’s activities with Bain Capital, specifically his leveraged buyouts involving massive layoffs resulting in exorbitant profits. That would be an example of not acting like Christ in the marketplace, don’t you agree?
    But what else? What would the economic plank in a Christian platform look like?
    http://dontdrinkthekingswine.blogspot.com/2008/02/what-would-christian-platform-look-like.html

  • http://www.dailyduck.blogspot.com Robert Duquette

    While all of these positions have some merit, they all ultimately fail when they leave out the most significant reason for putting our trust in the markets: because all control ultimately belongs to God.
    This is such a silly argument. If God is ultimately in control, then every outcome is exactly as He wants it. Poverty in Africa and wealth in America is as God wants it, since He controls everything. I’f you’re still agonizing over how you need to approach market economics, then you really don’t believe what you stated above.
    As with every institution, what the markets need is for Christians to act more like Christ.
    But that’s the problem with your whole program. Christians are fallen and sinful, they can’t act like Christ. You really don’t have a new way to approach economics here, you’re just applying wishful thinking to the problem of human self-interest.
    But human self-interest is what makes free market economics work as well as it does. It works because it is based on how people actually are, rather than how you or other utopians wish them to be.

  • http://www.codemonkeyramblings.com MikeT

    Many of us don’t reject it as a solution for our neighbors. In fact, you libertarians are the group most dedicated to the idea that the economic freedom that is good for them is good for everyone else. I don’t think you’ll find many libertarians that would argue that foreign aid aside from private charity is good for the recipients, and you especially won’t find any that disagree with the idea that what Africa really needs is open trade with the rest of the world.
    It is worth keeping in mind too that not all poor people are created the same. There are a number who would love to work hard and earn a good day’s wage for that. There are plenty of others who are parasites on society, and don’t deserve any help. The Bible only commands us to take care of the former, because as it is written, “they that shall not work, shall not eat.”
    Free market reforms are necessary in many fields, especially expensive ones like medicine. There is no reason why you need a degree to operate most medical equipment. All an operator of such machines would need is a certification from the manufacturer showing that they have received training on how to operate it. Why do you need a law degree in many states to sit in on the bar exam to become a lawyer? Why do taxi medallions cost so much?
    Right now, it’s primarily libertarians, not conservatives, who are concerned with questions like these. Many conservatives, for example, are more concerned with standardized testing and scores than the very question of whether or not having state-run schools is healthy for education in America.
    I don’t think these things are exclusive to libertarians. If conservatives would step back and examine the issues hard enough, they’d quickly realize that this is a major common ground that they share with libertarians. The freedom to produce according to one’s talents and education is one of the most fundamental human rights there is.

  • oclarki

    God is sovereign over markets in the same way he is sovereign over the physical laws of nature. We hold that God created the laws that govern the movements of celestial bodies and cellular function. If there is any science to be found in economics, then we should be as confident in the inherent rationality and predictability of the supply and demand curve as we are about gravity and Force equaling Mass times Acceleration.
    Therfore, just as we operate in the physical world within the constraints of the laws of nature God has established, we should also operate within the economic world. The law of gravity is amoral, however we can use it sinfully if we drop a rock on someone’s head. The laws of economics can be abused in the same way if we exploit our neighbor.

  • Shaun Woods

    I’ve often compared the market system of economics with alcohol — there’s nothing inherently wrong with the concept of the market system, but the potential for abuse is overwhelming (though, to be fair, not everyone agrees with me about the alcohol). Knowing that mankind is “desperately wicked”, we should recognzie that if the potential for abuse exists, then abuse will occur.
    What about those of us who wish to provide for our families, but don’t want to take part in the market system? I’ve been looking into this for some time now, and don’t see how it is possible under our system that says market system or bust.

  • JohnW

    In other words:
    God is not a free-market capitalist….
    or a communist.

  • Loki

    “This is such a silly argument. If God is ultimately in control, then every outcome is exactly as He wants it. Poverty in Africa and wealth in America is as God wants it, since He controls everything. I’f you’re still agonizing over how you need to approach market economics, then you really don’t believe what you stated above.”
    Amen brother! I could become a believer!

  • JohnW

    Robert and Loki,
    Since God is sovereign and everything is pre-determined, does that mean we don’t have to do anything or care about how things are going in the world?
    All we have to do is believe the right things about Jesus and wait to die or perhaps get raptured? No need to care about the environment, politics, or war…
    There will be no need for you to vote either.

  • Jay D

    The third way you are daydreaming about is for everyone to love their neighbor as themself. If everyone did that, there would be no need for money or anything else.
    On the chance that that won’t work, free markets are the way to go.
    The market may not be mystical or miraculous, but it does provide for the poor… in the form of inexpensive goods. Not only does inexpensive goods allow for the poor to get more with the little they have, it gives carity a bigger bang for the buck. It is easier to help out a neighbor.

  • Loki

    Nice try on the voting thing. I don’t claim to know anything one way or the other about God. However believers in even semi-strict predestination should stop treating poverty or death as tragedies since, by their own theology, the world is exactly as God wants it to be at that moment.
    “Hath not the potter power over the clay of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?” Perhaps the true god-honoring response would be to tell the clay to suck it up and stop complaining?

  • http://evangelicalperspective.blogspot.com/ Collin Brendemuehl

    There is no “Christian” economy. The Bible has a Hebrew national economy but not a Christian economy.
    All economic systems are essentially secular. But there is a Christian influence on economics (like influence on government, it’s a matter of ethic) that can be valuable. And that is why Adam Smith deserves a re-evaluation.
    Collin
    http://evangelicalperspective.blogspot.com/

  • http://www.dailyduck.blogspot.com Robert Duquette

    Since God is sovereign and everything is pre-determined, does that mean we don’t have to do anything or care about how things are going in the world?
    The only reason to care is if you don’t like the outcome that God has predetermined.
    But are you acting on your own will, or is your will predetermined by God? If so, is it your will or God’s will?
    God is only sovereign if there is no free will for Man.
    I don’t worry about what God wills, I only act on what I think is right or wrong. If God doesn’t care for my actions, He can always overrule me.

  • The One

    Christian (open markets)- I want to deliver to the world food, the news etc. I wish to produce the best product I can. Profit results.
    Non Christian (open markets)- We need more money. Profit margins were only 11%, we can get them to 20%. So what if our product quality declines, it doesn’t matter if our product is 10% better or 1% better then our rivals long as our customers still buy it.
    What is your first priority?

  • The One

    Christian (open markets)- I want to deliver to the world food, the news etc. I wish to produce the best product I can. Profit results.
    Non Christian (open markets)- We need more money. Profit margins were only 11%, we can get them to 20%. So what if our product quality declines, it doesn’t matter if our product is 10% better or 1% better then our rivals long as our customers still buy it.
    What is your first priority?

  • The One

    Christian (open markets)- I want to deliver to the world food, the news etc. I wish to produce the best product I can. Profit results.
    Non Christian (open markets)- We need more money. Profit margins were only 11%, we can get them to 20%. So what if our product quality declines, it doesn’t matter if our product is 10% better or 1% better then our rivals long as our customers still buy it.
    What is your first priority?

  • http://www.psonnets.org/ Michael

    Most of us are Americans. We live with overtime laws, minimum wage laws, OSHA laws, and other protections for workers. If free markets take over, these protections would disappear. Most jobs available afterwards would pay low rates in bad working conditions at long hours. How do I know? Developing countries already have these conditions. History teaches us as well the kind of conditions our forefathers suffered.
    It is easy to answer that someone unsatisfied with his or her job can find work elsewhere in a free market. But as we see in our own times, most companies pay “competitive wages,” especially for unskilled labor. The ceiling, in my observation, tends to be ten to twelve dollars an hour. Most are paid six to eight. Companies refuse to pay higher. They do not have to, either by law or by custom of surrounding employers.
    Does this mean we should have higher mininum wages and other government-mandated benefits? No, but free market advocates should stop kidding themselves about what would happen if we had no protections at all.

  • Jay D

    Michael,
    Minimum wage simply means that a worker who is willing to work for a lower wage can’t.
    Minimum wage is an attempt to get something from nothing. You can’t just decree a wage floor and expect prosperity to magically result through force of will. It doesn’t work that way. Prosperity takes hard work.

  • Stud. Theol.
  • http://www.psonnets.org/ Jay D

    Jay D,
    No, a minimum wage does not “simply” mean that. A minimum wage leads to a complex set of reactions. Minimum wage laws would not be so bad if, for example, America’s corporate tax rate were not so punitive; or if zoning laws allowed more than one family to live together in a single-family home; or if state inspection standards allowed people to drive cheaper, albeit less safe cars; etc. I could live on the minimum wage if I thought long enough about how to do it. But how many other laws would I be breaking?

  • http://www.psonnets.org/ Michael

    Oops, sorry, JD…I accidentally put your name as my name in my last comment!

  • Bill Henry

    Joe,
    Great article. Ravi Zacharias has a great sermon that addresses this topic in an ancillary way. Go to rzim.org click on Let my People Think Current broadcast and listen to Creedal Affirmation in Search of Commitment.
    But then again, we are just advocating populism when we affirm the need of a Moral Free Market… (heavy sarcasm intended…)
    In Christ,
    Bill Henry

  • http://dontdrinkthekingswine.blogspot.com Daniel

    Bill Henry,
    Great point. If we care about and for the poor, huddled masses, we must be populists, right? :o)
    Of course, the key is not that we SHOULD care but HOW we should care…i.e., churches focusing more on community needs rather than building gleaming sanctuaries…but that is another story and I digress. :o)

  • BONNIE

    ENT, URGENT, URGENT, URGENT,
    PASTORS WILL PREACH ON SUNDAY IN TEXAS AND OHIO SO,,,,,THIS IS MY MAX- OUT- FOR- MIKE- URGENT MESSAGE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. DEAR RANGERS AND FRIENDS
    PLEASE COPY AND PASTE THIS LETTER (BELOW) THEN E- MAIL TO CHURCHES
    IN TIME FOR SUNDAY’S
    SERMONS, THEN VOTING
    TO TEXAS CHURCHES FIRST, THEN OHIO….ON SAT, MARCH 4
    REMEMBER THE ALAMO..(AND THEY DIDN’T EVEN HAVE COMPUTERS BACK THEN)!!!!!
    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
    THE LETTER:
    DEAR FRIENDS:
    IN LIGHT OF RECENT POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS, AND KNOWING HOW FAITHFUL YOU ARE TO GOD, FAMILY, AND FREEDOM, I WOULD LIKE YOU TO PLEASE EXAMINE MIKE HUCKABEE’S INCOMPARABLE, IMMACULATE, RECORD ON MY BEHALF,… AND CONSIDER HIM AS YOUR CANDIDATE FOR PRESIDENT !
    PLEASE READ THIS, EVEN IF YOU HAVE ALREADY VOTED.
    A VOTE (OR FINANCIAL HELP) FOR MIKE HUCKABEE IS A STEP TO PRESERVE AND IMPROVE AMERICA ..IT IS ESSENTIALLY A VOTE FOR ALL WE HOLD DEAR ! YOU KNOW I AM USUALLY NOT POLITICAL, BUT TAKE A LOOK AT WHAT WE AMERICANS CAN ALL LOSE IF WE AREN’T MOTIVATED AND INFORMED, AND CAREFUL:
    HILLARY WANTS TO TAKE AWAY OUR RIGHT TO EVEN SPEAK ABOUT ABORTION(cnn.com, issue :abortion) AND REINSTATE HER HUSBAND’S (BILL’S) VETO BY ALLOWING THE KILLING OF AMERICAN BABIES WHEN THEY ARE HALF IN AND HALF OUT OF A WOMAN’S BIRTH CANAL (PARTIAL BIRTH ABORTION). PRESIDENT BUSH STOPPED THIS OVERTLY-HORRIFIC EVIL ACT.
    SHE WILL BRING IT BACK, IN ADDITION WANTS A BILL PREVENTING FREEDOM OF SPEECH. ANY TALK, COUNSEL OR HELP FOR THOSE WHO ARE CONSIDERING ABORTION WOULD BE ILLEGAL !!!!.UNLESS YOU WERE A GOVERNMENT ENTITY (REVERSE GLOBAL-GAG RULE)….. WOULD THIS AFFECT OUR PRIESTS IN CONFESSION ? (CHECK OUT CANDIDATES VIEWS ON ISSUES ON CNN.COM)….ESPECIALLY ABORTION !
    BARRACK HUSSEIN OBAMA : “THE TALK,TALK,TALK-SHOW HOST”, JUNIOR SENATOR , WHO HAS BEEN “APPROVED” OF ,BEING “UNPATRIOTIC”, AND REFUSED TO HONOR OUR SIMPLEST TOKENS OF RESPECT (OUR SACRED AMERICAN TRADITIONS), WANTS THE SAME RIGHT TO KILL AMERICAN OFFSPRING (WITH PARTIAL BIRTH ABORTION ). HE ALSO STATES THAT HE WOULD LIKE TO “PARTNER WITH
    IRAQ” (REAL quote FROM SUPER TUESDAY-)…. HE IS “GONNA” CHANGE THINGS. UNLESS, AS HE STATED, VOTERS ELECT SOMEONE ELSE TO RUN “THIS THING”. (HIS REFERENCE TO AMERICA).
    McCain HAS BEEN WISHY WASHY IN GENERAL ON SOME KEY ISSUES. HE SLIPPED TODAY (FEB 29) AND CALLED HIMSELF A LIBERAL..ONE MUST WONDER, THOUGH…… SINCE HE PARTNERS WITH /HAS THE BACKING OF, A MAN WHO HATES CATHOLICS AND CALLS THEIR CHURCH A “WHORE”, AND “ANTI-CHRIST”. …………..
    IN ADDITION,ON THE RIGHT-TO-LIFE. THIS “MODERATE”( MC CAIN) HAS STATED THAT HE BELIEVED IN STEM CELL RESEARCH (USING ABORTED BABIES IN PETRI DISHES FOR RESEARCH). THIS IS HOW THE NAZIS PROCEEDED!
    POSSIBLY ROBBING VOTES FROM MIKE HUCKABEE, TOO… (IN WASHINGTON STATE) BY NOT DEMANDING THAT THEY COUNT ALL THE VOTES ?!? YES, SENATOR JOHN MC CAIN, IS AND ALWAYS WILL BE A HERO FOR HIS SACRIFICES. THIS IS IRREFUTABLE. YET WE MUST KNOW WHERE HE STANDS NOW. NOT JUST ON THE WAR IN IRAQ. CURRENTLY,HE IS REFUSING, (BY IGNORING A PETITION), TO DEBATE MIKE HUCKABEE IN A REPUBLICAN DEBATE.( I SPOKE WITH THE PERSON WHO BOOKED THE NATIONAL TV NETWORK, YESTERDAY). MR. MC CAIN HAS YET TO REPLY (TO THE PETITION).
    THIS, ALL OF IT, IS TOO REMINISCENT OF GEORGE ORWELL’S BOOK , ‘ANIMAL FARM’..
    2008 IS A YEAR FOR “CHANGE” ALRIGHT…BUT WHAT KIND, AND HOW IS IT BEING MARKETED IN ELECTION 2008 ?
    WHEN THE GOVERNMENT DECIDES WHO SHOULD LIVE AND DIE, WHO SHOULD SPEAK OR NOT, AND ABORTED BABIES CAN BE “FARMED” FOR RESEARCH,WE ARE SURELY GOING TO “CHANGE” !
    AS GOVERNOR MIKE HUCKABEE SO WISELY AND ELOQUENTLY STATED: “GOVERNMENT DID NOT GIVE LIFE, AND GOVERNMENT CANNOT TAKE IT AWAY”.
    A PRUDENT MAN, AN HONEST CANDIDATE, IN D.C.! ? ! HELL WOULD FORBID !
    DO YOU KNOW MIKE HUCKABEE HAS READ PROVERBS EVERY DAY SINCE HE WAS IN HIS TEENS? I CONTEND,YOU CANNOT READ THE WORDS OF KING SOLOMON (PROVERBS) EVERY DAY AND NOT BE WISE.
    JESUS SAID: “BY THEIR FRUITS YOU SHALL KNOW THEM.”
    HE IS PRO-GOD, PRO-LIFE, PRO-AMERICA AND PRO-FAMILY…
    HUCKABEE, WANTS TO “TRIM THE FAT”. GO WITH A MAN WHO ISN’T PLAGUED BY SCANDAL OR SQUANDERED MONEY ! (HILLARY CAMPAIGN-131 MIL, CAMPAIGN HUCK-9 MIL )
    ELECTION 2008 …JUST FINE…BUSINESS AS USUAL…YOU’RE RIGHT… IT’S NOT BAD…IT’S HORRIFIC!
    WANT A REAL CHOICE? VOTE HUCKABEE IN 08 !!!!!, IF YOU ALREADY VOTED..DO YOURSELF A MAJOR FAVOR, JUST CHECK HIM OUT AT HIS WEBSITES, BLOGS, AND FACE BOOKS (ON THE COMPUTER) AND ON “YOU TUBE” THE COMPUTER-ACCESSED “VIDEOS”…BUT DON’T DELAY , DO IT TODAY! . HE IS ROCK SOLID !
    HE IS THE TRUE CONSERVATIVE. OH, BY THE WAY, MC CAIN IS TRYING TO IGNORE A HUGE PETITION FOR A REPUBLICAN DEBATE WITH THE REMAINING CANDIDATES…EVEN THOUGH HIS REPUBLICAN CONSTITUENTS WOULD LOVE ONE !
    THIS UPCOMING VOTE IN TEXAS IS CRUCIAL …TEXAS CAN CHANGE THE TIDE AND EVERYTHING IN THIS ELECTION, TOWARDS MIKE HUCKABEE ,AND REALLY SAVE THIS COUNTRY!
    WHEN COMMUNISTIC SYMPATHIZERS (read:OBAMAS COMMUNIST TIES,WIKIPEDIA), AND NAZI-LIKE TACTICS RULE THE DEMOCRATS AND THE REPUBLICANS SUPPORT STEM-CELL (EXPERIMENTS ON HUMAN FETUSES)…WHEN WE
    HAVE NO VIABLE, TRUE CONSERVATIVE VOICE IN “JOHN MC CAIN AND COMPANY” … THEN WE MUST VOTE AND HELP MIKE HUCKABEE , OR WE WILL HAVE HELL TO PAY.
    HUCKABEE—CONSISTENTLY PRO-AMERICA, PRO-FREEDOM AND PRO-LIFE.
    GOD DID GIVE US LIFE..LET US GO FORTH TO HELP HIS TRUE SERVANT, MR MIKE HUCKABEE MAKE IT ALL THE WAY TO THE WHITE HOUSE !!
    PS: YOU KNOW, I HAVE NEVER BEEN POLITICALLY-INCLINED BEFORE THIS ELECTION..BUT I BELIEVE WITH ALL MY HEART AND SOUL THAT EVERYTHING WE VALUE MAY BE A STAKE IF WE ALL DON’T HELP MIKE HUCKABEE GET THE REPUBLICAN NOMINATION !
    HE IS A WISE AND HONORABLE MAN AND THE ONLY REMAINING CANDIDATE WHO HAS EVER EVEN GOVERNED !! (VOTED AS A TOP GOVERNOR -10 YEARS) REMEMBER THE ALAMO ???? —AMERICANS OVERPOWERED 40 TO ONE ! REMEMBER WHO WON?
    GO TEXAS ! GO TEXANS !*
    VOTE HUCKABEE! GET THE WORD TO THE PRIESTS, PAPERS AND PREACHERS, AND PARADERS ! PROCLAIM IT FROM THE PULPIT…PRAY IT IN THE PEWS! AMEN ! STICK IT IN THE HYMNAL BOOKS .
    CIRCULATE THIS LETTER OR ONE OF YOUR OWN …WE HAVE AN OBLIGATION TO REALLY HELP THIS MAN, HELP US, IF HEAVEN WILL HAVE IT’S WAY.
    PEACE BE WITH YOU,
    BONNIE BUCKLAW-ORTIZ
    GOD’S KINGDOM COME. GOD’S WILL BE DONE. ON EARTH,AS IT IS IN
    HEAVEN———————————

  • dakotabilly

    In Re; the last clause of the second paragraph, “. . . all control belongs to God.” Actually, all AUTHORITY belongs to God.

  • http://tomgrey.motime.com Tom Grey

    “Most jobs available afterwards would pay low rates in bad working conditions at long hours. How do I know? Developing countries already have these conditions.”
    There’s your answer, Michael — start a company and PAY MORE to the workers.
    The “free market”, like all civilizations, does require defining property rights, and using force to punish those who steal and commit fraud. It requires gov’t force to enforce contracts (especially to force the rich & powerful to fulfill their contracts with the poor — which often does not happen in “poor countries”).
    It does not require force to stop people from buying what they want, or for offering to sell people what the people might buy. The free market is thus the peaceful market, with buyers peacefully coming to agreement with sellers, or peacefully, without force, leaving without agreement.
    Government is force. Christianity should be, as far as civilization allows, peace.
    Christianity has been weak in supporting the development of Entrepreneur-owners of businesses — those who offer jobs. But what poor people all over the world need, more than food or health care, is the offer of a job.
    Capitalism rewards those who offer jobs with profits and … a return on capital! Thus, more jobs. Capitalism works best in a free market, but non-profit orgs show that a free market allows non-capitalist companies to peacefully offer goods and services.
    Most “free marketeers”, like myself, also support capitalism. But I have other fantasies, too:
    I happen to think it would be nice if there was a “Jobism” type of company, whose owner was a Christian, who rewarded the management for hiring more workers without a loss, usually meaning a uncertain monthly or quarterly or yearly bonus.
    Today the management wants to maximize return on capital, because the capitalist owner pays the manager based on ROC. All the tools of measurement and production efficiency could be used similarly were the Jobist to reward managers based on people hired — with the likely result of more, lower cost products available. Thus, more net purchasing power for the poor, even without much higher wages.