Against Christianity by Peter Leithart

“Christianity is the heresy of heresies, the underlying cause of the weakness, lethargy, sickness, and failure of the modern church.”  So opens Peter Leithart’s Against Christianity. Dr. Leithart, a conservative Presbyterian minister and Senior Fellow of Literature and Theology at New St. Andrew’s college,  seems an unlikely candidate to levy the charges made in this book.  His project, to convince the Church to reject Christianity in favor of Christendom, is challenging not only because Christianity has an international establishment and following, but also because Dr. Leithart rebukes popular thinking by both modern, mainstream evangelicals as well as post-modern emergents.

The book is comprised of five chapters titled: Against Christianity, Against Theology, Against Sacraments, Against Ethics, and For Constantine.  The last chapter might seem surprising given that Constantine plays the part of the villain in the narrative told by foes of doctrine loving, corporate church, purpose driven Christianity.  More surprising than Leithart’s admiration of Constantine  is the form of prose Leithart uses to undermine the entire Christian project: each chapter is comprised of dozens of brief meditations.  As a result, he often does not give the reader an adequate understanding of the roots or trajectory of his ideas.  Nonetheless, he succeeds in provoking thought.

Christianity, Leithart argues, is a religion formed around a haphazard arrangement of modern values and practices.  It understands Christian community to be a religious layer on social life; it emasculates biblical religion through intellectualization and privatization.  Instead of confronting the language of existing culture with a robust language of its own, it offers theology, a sterile environment in which one speaks of God using clean terms, removing Him and His work from time in order to dissect timeless truths.  Theology merely adds religious words and phrases to the stock of existing language.

Christianity, specifically evangelical Christianity, embraces modernity’s disdain for ritual, opposing and giving supremacy to the Word over the sacraments.  It accepts the postmodern civic myth by creating “temporary emotional communities,” post-modern tribes, instead of growing genuine, settle community life.  When it bothers to concern itself with tradition and the sacraments, it pursues false questions about symbols versus realities.  Finally, Christianity embraces segregation between Christianity and its work by speaking in terms of its “implications” for social or political life rather than speaking in terms of transformation.  It reduces the gospel to a philosophical viewpoint in order to engage in conversation about ethics, a project of godless men to justify a godless morality.

Leithart concludes his book by sharing his view of the mission of the Church.  The Church is called to be both countercultural, a separate city within the world’s cities, and also an actor subverting culture, converting whatever culture she finds herself in.  To this end, Leithart holds up Constantine as an example.  Constantine subverted the Roman Empire to the Church, making it the official religion of the empire, thereby establishing Christendom.   Upon the establishment of Christendom under Constantine, the empire underwent a kind of urban renewal.  Leithart quotes Rodney Stark arguing that cities once filled with strife, chaos, and crime were revitalized by the Church such that new norms and new kinds of social relationships were able to cope with urban problems such as homelessness and poverty.  It brought a new and expanded view of the family to the empire, and offered a new basis for social solidarity so that cities could face epidemics, fires, earthquakes, and other tragedies.  Earthly power became attentive to the Church and the Church governed the city.  Argues Leithart, “The mere presence of the Church means the end to ‘business as usual’ in the earthly city.  Always and forever, an end to business as usual.”  However, Christianity has abandoned this project, choosing instead to subvert itself and coexist unnaturally with earthly powers.  As a result, Leithart asks his readers to consider whether the Spirit has abandoned the Church.

Against Christianity has something to say to both sides of the theological debates between moderns and post-moderns.  Leithart’s emphasis on story versus doctrine, his emphasis on the need of the Church to be authentic, and his concerns that the Church has become too subservient to modernity’s arrangement of the secular versus the sacred seem to challenge the assumptions of mainstream, evangelical moderns.  However, Leithart’s belief that we ought to establish Christendom and his view that the Church has a language all its own that transcends all cultures and is accessible by all people should challenge some key assumptions of the post-modern emergents.  The book occupies a middle-ground all its own between the warring philosophies and offers readers a captivating alternative vision for  the future of the Church. ‘

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Dustin R. Steeve

Dustin Steeve is a blogger and web enthusiast. Dustin's passion is to see his generation of Christians rise up as thought leaders, doing remarkable, good work Christianly. Dustin is interested in the rise of web media and increasingly prominent use of computer technology as a tool to aid people. Dustin worked for three years as the director of GodblogCon and is an adviser for the Christian Web Conference. Dustin graduated summa cum laude and received his B.A. in History from Biola University where he also graduated from Torrey Honors Institute. Dustin has completed some post-graduate work at the Stanford Graduate School of Business where he was appointed to the Dean's List and received a certificate of completion from the Summer Institute for General Management.

  • David Nilsen

    It’s hard to say anything for sure since I haven’t actually read the book, but I get the feeling he’s just set up a huge straw man. I mean, the only two types of “modern evangelicals” that exist, according to Leithart, are ivory tower academics and those who keep their faith private and don’t let it actually influence the rest of their life, or their world. But neither of those descriptions would have come to my mind had you asked me to describe a modern American evangelical. Not only is there a good bit of anti-intellectualism in American evangelicalism, but the big names are people like Dobson, Robertson, Falwell, and Colson, all of whom are, I would argue, very “Constantinian.” And it also sounds to me (again, from the limited vantage point of only reading a short review) that he’s accepted some of the same “modern” premises as the evangelicalism he’s critiquing, so that his solution is just as wrong-headed, because he’s failed to diagnose the real problem.

  • pduggie

    @Nilsen: You should definitely actually read the book.

  • David Poulton

    This is why I’m moving towards the Eastern Orthodox Church. I can no longer handle “Four Bare Walls and a sermon”. That and the rock band passing as worship with the light show and smoke machine. Add to that a Jesus will help you with all your self help needs.

    I’m not a “seeker”. I’ve been a Christian for 20+ years now. If we’ve got to turn the church into a rock concert venue complete with a coffee shop in order to get people to come visit and consider Christ, what kind of disciples are we creating?? True it will draw a crowd.

  • David Nilsen


    I agree 100% with all of your criticisms. But you should try a Confessional Reformed church before you move to Eastern Orthodoxy. I totally understand your frustration, but Eastern Orthodoxy is a “quick fix” and not the answer.

    And just so you know that you’re not alone, you should check out some of Mike Horton’s books on evangelicalism and culture. Or listen to his radio program online for free:

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