Do Christians Need to Apologize for the Crusades?

Church, Religion — By on March 27, 2013 at 7:00 am

In university, I took a class on Islamic history and theology. Naturally, the course touched upon the Crusades, but we did not solemnly meditate upon that period of history much longer than it took to go over in class. Sometimes people try apologizing for the Crusades as a diplomatic maneuver when they talk about Jesus, but I have two primary reactions to the idea of making such an apology: 1. I’m not sorry—I didn’t do it! 2. Apologizing for the Crusades is just a rote response—are we just trying to get out of feeling bad? C. Michael Patton over at the blog Parchment and Pen wrote a series of posts in January and February debunking misconceptions about the Crusades and arguing for why they were necessary. I largely agree with what he wrote, but I also want to fill in some things that I believe he left out.

The series is entitled “Four Misconceptions about the Crusades,” but I could not find number four. (Yes, really.) I will quickly deal with the posts in order:

  1. Misconception number one: “The Crusades were not provoked.” In sum, Muslims had been conquering Christian territory for hundreds of years. The Crusades were one response.
  2. Misconception number two: “The Crusaders were greedy opportunists.” In sum, the Crusaders gave up personal fortunes in order to go on the Crusades. Sacking and burning was standard operating procedure for wars of the time, and it helped them recover some of the costs of going.
  3. Misconception number three: “The Fourth Crusade was a Christian-on-Christian fratricidal tragedy.” In sum, the Crusaders were responding to Byzantine treachery when they sacked Constantinople. It was bad, but so is war.

Then he wrote the last post, “Why I Think the Christian Crusades Were Necessary,” describing the Crusades as an appropriate response to Muslim invasions of Christian-held lands. The maps in this post illustrate the spread of Islam compared to the territory controlled by Byzantine and European Christian rulers. In a “kill the chicken to terrify the monkey” moment, Christendom struck back. Europe responded to the Muslim threat and demonstrated that they were not interested in submitting to Muslim rule. According to Patton, even if the Crusades began on a pretext, Europeans had to flex a little muscle to make Islamic rulers think twice about continuing invasions into Europe.

I learned principally two things from Patton’s blog series: 1. there is nothing for us to apologize for on an individual basis in reference to the Crusades, 2. the Crusades were not magnitudes worse than any other war in the whole of human history—not even second or third place to the worst one. In his post on the necessity for the Crusades, Patton links the Crusades with the recent American war in Iraq, basically calling that a demonstration of American power against America’s enemies. Demonstrating American power is a political question (with possible religious connotations), and the connection between politics and religion embodied in the Crusades is definitely one point open to criticism. Nevertheless, even on a purely political dimension, if Europe did not want Islamic rulers, Europeans had to fight.

Pacifists, anti-imperialists, atheist critics of Christianity, and Muslim apologists can all find something to criticize in the Crusades. The Crusades are one set of wars continually remembered without reference to other wars happening at the same time. In that era, Christendom and Islam were roughly equal in terms of military power. It was not a simple case of imperialist Europe practicing on its future colonial subjects. Muslims remember their glory days with pride, days in which their literature, philosophy, science, medicine, and civilization were more advanced than that of Europe. Their recollection is correct. If you must go on with the nonsense about Muslims only lifting civilization from Greece and Rome and contributing nothing of their own, please do it in the other room. The Crusades (1095-1291) probably caught Islam in a period of weakness, but the 1453 Fall of Constantinople and the 1529 Siege of Vienna were yet to come. As for America, as the strongest Western power, it has its own problems in handling the issue of the Crusades.

America presently has to answer for the Crusades because America is the strongest Western power, with the strength to start wars wherever it wants. Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and the interpretation of Israel as a proxy state? Crusades. American military bases in the Middle East as a legacy of the Cold War and the Persian Gulf War? Dens of Crusaders. CIA support for the Shah of Iran? Neo-imperialism. “Crusader” is an easy and halfway appropriate epithet to apply to Americans in the Middle East. There is certainly a grain of truth floating the stereotype that Canadians are more popular abroad than Americans. Nations and nation-states have longer lives than any individual, so naturally their collective memories will reach back hundreds of years. Dealing with individuals in the present is a different matter entirely.

Each new generation uncorks a full bottle of ink, and they learn to write by copying what their parents write at the height of their talent. Parents write with greater skill and sense of context with their own grievances than do their children. Unless their children mature, they only pick up the grievance and go on to write about it with youthful zeal and a full bottle of ink. People generally have an awful sense of history, Christians and Muslims alike. It is harder for children to write well about their parents’ struggles than to write well about their own. Although we have the benefit of hindsight when discussing the Crusades, ink spent passionately denouncing them is ink wasted for solving contemporary evils. Also, if the Crusades are a real sticking point in your relationship with Muslim friends, how likely is it that you are the problem in your relationship with your Muslim friends and not the Crusades?

If you are not a jerk in the present, there is no real reason for the past to make people hate you now. There is no judge other than God who can hand down a just sentence for what happened in the Crusades. We cannot do enough to satisfy anyone who takes it upon themselves to get justice for the Crusades. The only way short of divine intervention to erase a historical grudge is to become a member of the historically offended party. There are Christian organizations dropping “crusade” from their names so that the name does not distract people from the gospel message, so it is right on the one hand to watch out for historically sensitive issues and right on the other hand to not accidentally look like you want to reenact the Crusades. When the Crusades come up in conversation with real live Muslim friends, let’s learn to do something other than dish out apologies.

When I did drama in high school, I had to learn to fence for a scene from Romeo and Juliet. I learned quickly to use my wrist and not my whole arm: the whole arm is stronger, but I got tired very quickly from heaving the sword about. Apologies can be powerful. Apologies can be clumsy. What do you want from making an apology—to not feel bad about the Crusades? To substitute words for deeds in making friends with Muslim neighbors? Ask questions to find out what people learned about the Crusades when they were growing up. Make no concessions to detractors, but learn how other people view history. The Crusades might just be a muckraking feint preceding the “Christianity is bunk!” lunge for your vital organs. If the Crusades never happened, what else would we be apologizing for? Perhaps silence would be better than answering every attempt to fix us with responsibility for the Crusades. From time to time, it is helpful for institutions to issue statements explaining their past. They can refer back to official explanations and apologies when people ask questions in the future, but it is a waste of time to give a fresh answer to everyone who asks. Fence honestly, but use your wrist.


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  • Bowman2062

    Do christians need to apologize for the crusades? Hell .. NO!

    A few years ago i asked my self the same question. And to answer it, it only took
    me a few hours, the internet and some books left over from historical studies at
    the Heinrich-Heine-University in Düsseldorf.

    What came out of it is what follows. It´s in the internet now for a while
    and other people found more stuff that fits into the list i now post here. Read
    it, and you know why the crusades where necessary! (Sorry for my bad english ..
    i went to an monastery school .. they prefered latin and greek over
    english.)

    632

    Death of Muhammad

    During his lifetime Islamic wars of aggression have enslaved and devastated
    wide parts of the Arabian peninsula. Since Muhammad’s death, Jihad ( جهاد =
    „Holy“ war) is continued and has converted the entire Mediterranean region for
    more than 1300 years into a permanent battleground

    635

    A Muslim army conquers the Christian-Byzantine city of Damascus, capital of
    the Christian kingdom of Damascus. The city and country are looted and burned
    down, the population cut down or enslaved. Forced conversion to Islam begins
    immediately. Which means : Non-Muslims (كفر‎ = Kuffar) have to pay a head tax (
    ‏جزية = Dschizya) and become stripped of nearly all rights and protection. Only
    who collaborates (converts) is reprieved.

    636

    Battle of al-Qādisiyyah

    Conquest of Mesopotamia including their Sassanid capital Ctesiphon.

    Immediately after the victory of violence widespread looting begin. Caliph
    Umar gives order to burn down the library of Al-Mada’in (Comparable to the
    library of Alexandria). Also later the Mohammedan fanaticism seeks to destroy
    ancient writings wherever he can lay hand on.

    637

    A Muslim army conquers the Christian-Byzantine Jerusalem. Forced conversion
    to Islam begins immediately. Churches and synagogues are looted or razed. Male
    inhabitants are cut down, woman and children are raped and/or enslaved.

    640

    Conquest and pillage of Cairo. Nearly all of the entire male population was
    slaughtered, woman and children are raped and/or enslaved. The ancient library
    of Cairo goes up in flames.

    642

    Decisive battle at Headlam (Ecbatana) versus the Sassanid Empire. Wide
    parts of what today is Iran fall into the hands of the Muslim conquerors. The
    magnificent Ecbatana, presumed to be the oldest city of the world, is nearly
    razed. Irretrievable possessions in art and culture are destroyed. Punitive
    actions, looting, enslavement and forced conversion to Islam begin immediately.
    These actions last till the year 900.

    642

    A Muslim army conquers and destroys Alexandria, capital of the
    Christian-Byzantine Egypt. City and country get into the furor of the Muslim
    conquerors. Within the few first months hundreds of thousands are slaughtered,
    millions are enslaved. In a firestorm beyond example not only the oldest
    Christian testimonials are destroyed, also everything ancient Rome and Egypt
    ever achieved is burned to the ground. The library of Alexandria, the jewel of
    the ancient world (restored after an accidental fire during the roman expansion)
    now becomes destroyed deliberately and by method. More then 4000 years of
    written history, early science and poesie go up in flames.

    645

    A Muslim army conquers and destroys the Christian city of Barca in northern
    Africa (Libya) They destroy the ancient greco-roman capital completely. The
    population goes into slavery.

    650

    The last territories of the Kingdom of Armenia are run down. The become
    looted and forced into Islamization.

    652

    Attack by Muslim Pirates (Corsairs) on Sicily. The attack is repelled
    despite the fact that the coastal villages lay in ruins, and many of the
    inhabitants are dead or enslaved.

    667

    Further attacks by Muslim Pirates (Corsairs) on Sicily are now ordered ,
    but still can be repelled. The coastal villages and churches now have to be
    fortified. Despite that, inhabitants still become enslaved

    674

    An attack on Constantinople (capital of the Christian-Byzantine empire) is
    repelled. On retread the Islamic army levels the regions eastwards of Bosporus
    to the ground, the population is forced into slavery.

    700

    Muslims conquer the Italian isle of Pantelleria and enslave the population.
    The island becomes a Muslim pirate stronghold.

    708

    Muslim invaders conquer Sicily for a short period. But it is able to
    reconquer the island under heavy losses and devastation’s.

    708

    The brutal Islamic campaign against the Christian north-African territories
    finally reaches the Atlantic ocean. On his march every north-African city and
    town was plundered and burned down. More then 50% of the north-African
    population is dead. Millions were raped, tortured and enslaved.

    710

    The last Christian city in North Africa has been conquered and pillaged.
    With this raid the once Christian North Africa dies. All 400 dioceses are razed.
    North Africa, once a thriving Christian world, which gave birth to great
    theologians like Tertullian, Cyprian, Athanasius, Augustinus, does not exist
    anymore.

    711

    Muslim hordes cross the sound of Gibraltar and invade the Iberian peninsula
    ( Today Spain and Portugal) and immediately begins the forced conversion into
    Islam. Taxes are higher and corporal punishments (amputations & be headings)
    for infidels are harder than everywhere else under the iron boot of Islam.
    Regular programs against Christians and Jews occur.

    711

    Qutaiba ibn Muslim commissioned by the Umayyad Caliphate starts a raid from
    Khorasan versus Transoxania. He conquers the notable city’s of Samarkand and
    Bukhara which become pillaged and nearly depopulated. Also Khwarezm and the
    Fergana valleys are subdued.

    712

    Islamic conquerors reach the borders of India and China. Behind them
    (following to contemporary chroniclers) all conquered country’s are in flames.
    Soon these Arabs wage first attacks on Sindh. Streams of slaves arrive on the
    markets of the middle east.

    712

    The Islamic Conquest and forced Islamization of southern Spain are nearly
    finished. North African slave markets are full to the bursting point with
    European slaves.

    713

    Muslims conquer and loot Barcelona, crossing the Pyrenees flooding,
    parching and looting into the kingdom of the Franks.

    717

    Another attack on Constantinople (capital of the Christian-Byzantine
    empire) is repelled. On retread the Islamic army levels the regions eastwards of
    Bosporus to the ground, the population is forced into slavery.

    720

    Muslims invade southern France, conquer Narbonne and besiege Toulouse. The
    primary function of this campaign is less aimed on conquest then of the chase
    for loot and slaves.

    720

    Another landing operation by Muslim invaders on Sicily comes to extended
    battles and more devastation.

    723

    Defensive battle of frankonien troops near Tours and Poitiers (today
    France) Victory of the franconian troops over the islamic invaders. The muslims
    have to retreat behind the Pyrenees but still control large areas of the iberien
    peninsula (today Spain and Portugal)

    731

    Plundering Islamic troops achieve a break through into southern France.
    From Dijon to Sens near the Loire, Langres and Luxeuil, nearly all of France and
    southwards of the Loire river falls into their hands.

    732

    The plundering of the rich Monastery city of Tours fails through the loss
    of the battle of Tours and Poitiers. Also the Muslim invaders manage to pillage
    and devastate the surrounding areas. On retreat they are able to lead thousands
    of hostages into slavery.

    735

    Again strong Muslim army attacks southern France. Despite the fact that
    they don’t achieve to conquer and hold the cities and country’s they wanted to,
    they enslave everyone who falls into their hands. In addition to that woman and
    children are raped.

    751

    In the battle of Talas an Arab Muslim army defeats a Chinese army for the
    first time.

    810

    Islamic troops occupy the island of Corsica. They use it from now on as
    base for attacks on the coastline of southern France.

    831

    Muslim troops conquer and pillage the city of Palermo on Sicily.

    832

    Muslim troops raid and plunder the city of Marseilles, where they obtain
    great numbers of slaves and goods.

    835

    Muslim troops operating from Sicily attack the Italian mainland and
    devastate Calabria.

    838

    Islamic troops again raid and pillage southern France and the Rhone Valley.

    840

    The cities of Tarent and Bari fall into Islamic hands. Both cities are
    heavily ransacked and pillaged. Thousands are enslaved.

    840–847

    Muslim invaders conquer the city of Benevent which stood under frankonia
    protection.

    841

    The Italian city of Brindisi falls after intense fighting into Muslim
    hands.

    841

    The Italian city of Capua is completely plundered and destroyed after a
    short besiege.

    843

    Muslim troops conquer and pillage the City of Messina on the island of
    Sicily.

    843

    Arab attacks on the City of Rome fail. Nevertheless the city and the
    surrounding region are plundered and set on fire. The population, as far as
    captured, is enslaved.

    846

    Further Arab attacks on the City of Rome fail. Nevertheless the city and
    the surrounding region are plundered and set on fire. The population, as far as
    captured, is enslaved.

    848

    In August 848 the city of Ragusa (on Sicily) is plundered and destroyed be
    the Arabs, despite to the fact that Ragusa signed a peace treaty and gave the
    city to the Arabs.

    848

    Muslim units raid and plunder Marseille, the surrounding region becoomes
    heavily devastated.

    Hostages and slaves are taken.

    849

    Arab attacks on the City of Rome fail. Nevertheless the city and the
    surrounding region are plundered and set on fire. The population, is captured
    and enslaved.

    851-852

    The Italian city of Benvent, for a short time liberated, now falls again
    into Islamic hands. The occupant troops massacre great parts of the
    inhabitants.

    856

    Arab invaders atatck and destroy the cathedral of Canosa in Apulia.

    The city is plundered and slaves are taken.

    859

    Muslim troops again raid and plunder southern France.

    868

    The Arabs finally conquer the city of Ragusa (Sicily)

    870

    Arabs conquer the isle of Malte where they destroy a 700 years old
    undaunted christian culture.

    878

    Moslem troops conquer and pillage the city of Syracus on Sicily

    880

    Moslem troops conquer and pillage the city of Nice

    882

    Moslem troops create a beachhead in the Provence (Fraxinetum) controlled by
    the Spanish Moorish, from there they attack Campania as well as Sabinia in the
    province of Latium.

    888

    Moslem troops again create a beachhead in the Provence (Fraxinetum)
    controlled by the Spanish Moorish, from there they organize raid campaigns.
    Westwards up to Arles (capital of the Kingdom of Burgundy) and also along the
    river Rhone, up to Avignon, Vienne (Near Lyon) and Grenoble.

    902

    Moslem troops raid and pillage the City of Taormina in Sicily.

    911

    The bishop of Narbonne is unable to travel from France to Rome due to the
    fact that raiding Muslims blocked all pass roads in the alps. Highway robbery,
    enslaving and plundering become order of the day in the alps.

    918

    Moslem troops from Sicily conquer and pillage the city of Reggio on the
    Italian mainland (Calabria)

    920

    Muslims push forward from Spain over the Pyrenees, devastating unhindered
    the Gascogne (southern France) and threaten Toulouse.

    934

    The Italian cities of Genoa and La Specia are raided, plundered and
    pillaged by Muslim troops.

    935

    The Italian cities of Genoa and La Specia again become raided, plundered
    and pillaged by Muslim troops.

    939

    Moslem hordes push over the Swiss alps up to Geneve. The city is plundered
    and slaves are taken.

    942

    Moslem troops march pillaging and murdering through the southeast of France
    and push into northern Italy.

    942

    Muslim troops conquer and burn down the city of Nice.

    952-960

    Starting from the alpine passes Muslim troops conquer the Swiss for nearly
    8 years. They plundered and destroyed in the following years the canton Valais,
    parts of canton Grisons and eastern Swiss. Between 952 and 969 Arabs ruled after
    the battle of Orbe (near the German border) wide parts of southern and western
    Swiss, including the Great St Bernard Pass, and pushed forward onto St. Gall up
    to Pontresina.

    942–965

    Muslim troops conquer and devastate the duchy of Savoy.

    942–965

    Muslim troops conquer and devastate the Provence (France)

    964

    Muslim troops, coming from Sicily conquer and pillage, parts of the Italian
    mainland and the city of Rometta.

    979-988

    Sebük Tegin declares Jihad (holy war) on the Hindu-Shāhī. He defeats their
    king Djaypal in the years 979 and 988. All fortresses in Afghanistan along the
    Indian Border fall into the hands of his Muslim warriors.

    1002

    Arab troops again conquer and destroy the Italian city of Bari.

    1002

    Arab troops conquer and plunder the italian city of Genoa

    1004

    Arab troops conquer and plunder the Italian city of Pisa.

    1009

    Caliph Al-Hakim commands the systematic devastation of all christian
    sanctuaries within Jerusalem. Also the Church of the Resurrectio (including the
    holy grave) was destroyed.

    1070

    The Seljuks, a inner Asian nomad tribe, which converted in the 10th century
    to Islam, gains control over Jerusalem. Peaceful pilgrimage is increasingly
    hindered. Raids on Christian pilgrims, including murder and enslavement
    increases.

    1071

    Battle of Manzikert. A Christian-Byzantine army is desperately defeated by
    Islamic hordes.The Muslim Seljuks conquer the entire heartland of the
    Christian-Byzantine empire: Asia Minor.

    1099

    After nearly 470 years of islamic expansion and agression as counter
    reaction the christian crusades begin.

    1206

    Sultanate of Deli. General Qutb-ud-Din Aibak takes over the power in the
    land at the river Indus by assassination of his former king. He found the so
    called Slavedynasty = Mamluk Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) This sultanate later
    goes over as bankruptcy assets into the Mughal Empire.

    1389

    Battle of Kosovo. A Christian army of Serbians, Bosians and Bulgars are
    defeated by an Islamic horde . The entire Balkan becomes Islamic.

    1453

    Conquest of Constantinople (Today Istanbul) Heart of the east roman empire
    (byzantine empire) . The Christian emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos dies
    defending the city. The end of the Byzantine Empire. The City is plundered 3
    days and nights. In all streets bloodcurdling deeds occur. Murder, torture,
    mutilation and rape are daily order. Sutan Mehmed II gives order for the public
    execution (beheading) of all Byzantine aristocrats including their families.
    Tens of thousands of civilians end up on Muslim slave markets.

    1479

    Ottoman troops conquer after extremely heavy fighting on the venetian
    island of Euboea. Main parts of the population are massacred, survivors are sold
    into slavery.

    1480

    A Muslim army conquers the Italian city of Otranto. The city becomes
    occupied (till 1481) and exposed to the arbitrariness of the occupants. After
    the retreat there are only burned walls and streets full of bones left.

    1492

    After the King of Spain reconquered with Granada in 1492 the last Muslim
    kingdom in europe, fled Moriscos settled in the Maghreb. These Corsairs built
    together with local Arabs and Morishs great fleets and start a permanent war on
    Christian Europe. Especially on their shipping and coasts. The corsairs raid
    within the next 4 centuries all coasts and ship lines up to the coast of
    Flanders,Denmark, Ireland, even Island. Most targeted for slave hunt,
    plundering, rape and pillage are the coasts and coastal villages of Italy,
    Spain, and Portugal.

    1499-1503

    Ottoman troops invade the northern Italian region of Friuli and threaten
    the city of Vicenza. The Apulian harbor town Otranto ( ca 100 kilometers
    southeast of Brindisi) becomes conquered and is prepared for beachhead for
    further plunder and war expeditions.

    1521

    A Muslim army conquers Belgrade. The city is plundered, all churches are
    destroyed or converted into mosques. Priest are often impaled or burned alive.
    Men cut down, woman and children raped and/or soled as slaves.

    1526

    Battle of Mohács. A Christian army was defeated by a Muslim horde. Muslim
    armies now occupy wide parts of Hungary and threaten Vienna. Ottoman hordes
    wreak havoc in a till then unknown dimension.

    1526

    The city of Ragusa (today Dubrovnik) was conquered by Muslim troops. It
    follows the normal plundering rape and forced conversion to Islam or slavery.

    1526-1530

    Grand Mogul Babur conquered starting from what today is Uzbejistan and
    Afghanistan the sultanat of Dehli as well as the Indian heartland around the
    north Indian Indus and Ganges plain. And the cities of Delhi, Agra and Lahore.
    Between 100 and 150 million people get into the grip of this Muslim usurper.

    1529

    First siege of Vienna from Muslims armies fails. But in advance the cities
    of Komorn and Preßburg (today Bratislava) go up in flames. The entire
    surrounding areas become heavily devastated. Thousands upon thousands are
    captured and end up on slave markets in Istanbul.

    1534

    Muslim pirates raid and pillage with 84 galleys the southern west coast of
    Italy, Starting at the city of Reggio northwards through the Tyrrhenian Sea up
    to the city of Sperlonga, subsequently driving home to Istanbul, loaded with
    thousands of slaves and immeasurable booty.

    1537

    Muslim pirates conquer the venetian isles Naxos, Kasos, Tinos and
    Karpathos.

    1543

    Muslim Corsairs of the Barbary coast besiege and plunder the city
    Nice.

    1544

    Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha raids the island of Ischia (near the Italian
    coast) and takes 4000 hostages (which he only releases with ransom) and enslaves
    further 9000 inhabitants (nearly the rest of the population)

    1515

    Turgut Reis enslaves the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo- 5000
    to 6000 people are sold on the Libyan slave markets.

    1554

    Moslem pirates raid the city of Vieste. The city is plundered and
    7000-10000 slave are taken which are soled on slave markets in Istanbul.

    1555

    Turgut Reis raids the city of Bastia on Cosica. He enslaves 6000-7000
    people which are sold on the Libyan slave markets. On retreat he gives order to
    set numerous coastal villages on fire.

    1558

    Pirates of the Barbary Coast conquer the city of Ciutadella (Monorca) They
    destroy all buildings and take 3000 slaves ( to be soled in Istanbul) and
    otherwise slaughter all inhabitants.

    1563

    Turgut Reis invades the coastal region of Grenada (Spain). The Conquers and
    plunders every coastal village. Among them Almuñécar, where he takes 4000 slaves
    and cuts down a much higher number. In the following years the Balearics are
    raided so often that the entire coastline has to be fortificated with fortified
    watchtowers and fortified churches. Islands like Formentera become depopulated
    by slavery, massacres and escape.

    1565

    Siege of Malta by Ottoman troops and Muslim Corsairs. Beginning at May 18th
    and ending at September 8th 1565. During this failed campaign nearly the entire
    Island was devastated. All fortifications shot to rubble and more then 42000
    soldiers and civilians killed.

    1658-1707

    The Mogul Empire expands southwards and forcing the conquered regions to
    convert to Islam.

    1609-1616

    Great Britain alone looses 466 merchant ships (between 15000 and 40000
    people) by attacks through pirates of the Barbary Coast. Crews were massacred or
    sold as slaves.

    1617-1625

    Attacks by Corsairs of the Barbary Coast are daily order. Raids occur in
    southern Portugal, South – and East Spain, the Balearic islands, Iceland,
    Sardinia, Corsica, Elba, the Italian peninsula (especially in Liguria, Toscana,
    Lazio, Campagnia, Calabria and Apulia) further Raids and plundering (including
    rape and enslavement) occur on Sicily and Malta. Greater raids in dimensions of
    real military expeditions strike down cities like Bouzas, Cangas, Moaña and
    Darbo.

    1627

    Iceland was raided and plundered several times by Turkish pirates. A major
    part of the population end up as slaves at the Barary Coast. Those who resisted
    were herded together in a church and burned alive.

    1631

    Murat Reis along with Algerian pirates and regular Ottoman troops raid
    Ireland. They storm the coast near Baltimore (County of Cork) They pillage and
    plunder the entire city, they took nearly all inhabitants as slaves and sold
    them on the slave markets of the Barbary Coast. Only two came home alive.

    1677-1680

    Further 160 British merchant ships (between 8000 and 20000 people) were
    lost to the Algerian Muslim-pirates. Crews were slaughtered and enslaved.

    1683

    Second (failed) siege on Vienna and threat to central Europe by Muslim
    armies. On advance the Ottoman army sets the surrounding regions on fire. All
    towns are plundered utterly and depopulated (enslavement) as far as who has not
    already fled. The retreating Ottomans only leave scorched earth.

    1700-1750

    Still over 20,000 European hostages ( not slaves) rot in Algerian dungeons
    and await redemption. Among them not only people from the Mediterranean coasts,
    there are also Danes, Germans, British , Swedish and Icelandic people.

    1915-1917

    Armenian Genocide. The ottoman empire uses the confusions of WW I to
    eliminate of the Christian Armenians. Up to 1.5 million Armenians were
    slaughtered on death marches and camps or local massacres.

    This is only a rough conspectus about the Islamic aggressions.

    In Islams time of existence, Islam has enslaved and sold more then 1
    Million Europeans and more then 2 million were killed during these actions. In
    India the death tolls are up in the 100 millions. Islamic slave traders sold up
    to 12 million Africans to the west (north- and south America) and have abducted
    up to 18 million back to the Islamic heartlands. For one slave captured there
    was an average of three more losing their lives. Which increases the African
    victims of Islam up to 120 Million! Not to speak about the millions of Muslims
    who became victims of their own ideology.